How to become an Ecotherapist

Every couple of weeks I get an email from someone who wants to become an ecotherapist. The usual scenario is that they’ve looked online but haven’t been able to find anything very conclusive.

Their search usually starts with an assumption that ecotherapy is an established profession - with a central coherent model, a clear training pathway and an over-arching institution that provides registration, qualifications and credibility.

Anyone already engaged with ecotherapy will immediately recognise why this assumption is flawed!

Working out how to become an ecotherapy practitioner can be a frustrating process. This article attempts to provide a guide to budding ecotherapists.

Mapping the terrain

Ecotherapy describes any practical application of the broad theoretical field of ecopsychology, which emerged simultaneously from several places. These include environmental, transpersonal and social psychology, ecology and environmental philosophy. It has many other roots too, for example in indigenous cosmologies and various archaic forms.

In the context of contemporary western thought, its first real coherence came through Theodore Roszak, Mary Gomes and Allen Kanner's seminal text, ‘Ecopsychology: restoring the earth, healing the mind’ published in 1995.

The fantastic diversity of ecopsychology as a subject has led to an equally rich range of practical applications. These include everything from taking traditional forms of psychotherapy outdoors and bringing ecological issues into the conventional therapy room to forest bathing (Shinrin Yoku), wilderness therapy, animal-assisted therapies, adventure therapy, nature-based therapy and various forms of bodywork. There has also been a proliferation of existing traditional practices like yoga, mindfulness, rites of passage and shamanic work being done under the ecotherapy banner.

Probably the most significant distinction is between approaches that are primarily about therapeutic outcomes for the individual and those that see ecotherapy as a reciprocal process. In the individual approach, nature is used as a tool to achieve personal therapeutic outcomes. In the reciprocal one, personal therapy is an outcome of working to heal nature as a whole. You can read more about this in my book, 'Ecotherapy: A Field Guide'.

Ultimately, ecopsychology is ubiquitous: everything can be seen through its lens. Consequently, applying it in practice promises astounding possibilities. This is exciting but it can also be extremely problematic because so many aspects of the subject are contested.

All this makes becoming an ecotherapist both very simple and extremely complicated at the same time. To call yourself an ecotherapist you do not need any qualifications or membership to a professional institution. There is no single code of ethics or model of practice. You do not need to subscribe to any particular worldview. You can do whatever you want, wherever you want, with whoever you want - for whatever fee you want to charge. Simple! But this is also a recipe for exploitation, malpractice and serious harm. It invites both unintentional and malicious abuse.

This potential for harm means that some ecotherapists are keen to establish a profession in the conventional sense. They want accredited courses, professional institutions, formal procedures, a code of ethics administered by an elected board, guidelines, standard operating procedures, specialist insurance policies and training pathways. All the trappings of ‘mainstream’ therapies. However, others find even the idea of such a structure abhorrent. After all, it represents the worldview that has devastated the planet and turned mental illness into a pandemic. They believe that these structures should be avoided at all costs and that ecotherapy cannot exist in conventional forms - it must be counter-cultural to be authentic.

And yet. And yet thousands of us call ourselves ecotherapists and many of us provide immensely helpful and important support to our clients. How can we navigate through this wild and paradoxical terrain? How can we safely, compassionately, humbly, ethically and professionally call ourselves ecotherapists?


What is your intention as an ecotherapist? Are you intending to work with people referred to you, who have been formally diagnosed with mental health issues? Or are you hoping to engage those who self-refer because they feel they need some kind of help and support?

If you are working with serious mental health issues, perhaps referred to you by another professional, then it is my opinion that you will need to be qualified as a psychologist, psychotherapist or psychiatrist. This is probably a self-limiting scenario, as you are unlikely to receive these kinds of referrals through the formal health system without conventional qualifications and registration.

If you are working with people who have self-selected, or who have been referred for anxiety or mild-to-moderate depression (MMD), for physical rehabilitation (for example, after a cardiac event or surgery), or health issues caused by challenges like social isolation, or bereavement, then I do not feel you need to be clinically qualified in a conventional sense.

I have also seen outdoor approaches help those struggling with addictions, something which is well evidenced in certain contexts.

For me the guiding principle is to ask yourself the question: is this 'psychotherapy' - where you are consciously engaging with serious mental health issues? Or is this 'therapy', where you simply1 intend to facilitate the therapeutic benefits that can naturally emerge through time spent outdoors?

A further helpful guideline is whether or not your client has ever been prescribed medication for mental health issues, has ever harmed themselves or others, or has been ‘sectioned’ - detained by the state for mental health issues. I feel this is a less clear guideline with a lot of variables. It should perhaps be part of your thinking, but not strictly applied.


What potential for harm exists in your specific context?

If you or your client are bringing ecological issues into a conventional therapeutic setting, then obviously the potential for harm is no more or less than bringing any other issue into the consulting room. If however, you are taking your clients on a three-day walk through a mountain range, then clearly the potential for harm is radically different.

And there are all the points in between. Working in your local urban park or woodland. At a city allotment or in a private garden. Or perhaps out on a day walk (or canoe trip, bike ride or wild swim).

So once you have your intention clarified, where do you want to work? If you’re working one-hour sessions with ecological issues in a consulting room, then you will need different skills and experience than if you are working in a wilderness area on a 21-day programme!


Risk is the potential for loss. This could be loss of life or limb or perhaps of belongings. But it could also be loss of confidence, pride, power, cultural identity, sexual identity or spirituality, for example. Loss is never only physical and material.

Any therapist or facilitator will also know about loss of process (LOP). This is a bit more tricky to grasp but is when a process - like building trust, for example, is negatively impacted by something that happens. Working outdoors, an example might be that the facilitator or therapist doesn’t know how to use a map and compass, so gets the client lost. Working indoors, perhaps the therapeutic space is disrupted by another client turning up early due to the therapist's poor planning.

Risk is not a fixed measure - it’s profoundly dynamic. Classic interplays include those between ‘real’ and ‘perceived’ risk, between the likelihood of something happening and the ensuing consequences, and between the technical competence of the protagonist and the type of risk they might encounter.

Managing risk in ecotherapy practice depends on your own personal background, training and experience. For example, psychotherapists may see all the psychological risks but be completely blind to those visible to the outdoor leader. On the other hand, there are many examples of highly qualified outdoor leaders becoming overwhelmed in a psychological emergency.

Depending on your context, have you assessed and mitigated risk to the lowest possible level… and then formally disclaimed the remaining risk to your client? Are you qualified to take responsibility for the type of risks you may encounter? Can you even ‘see’ all the risks involved?

You need to feel personally confident that you have managed risk to a level of professional best practice. For physical risk, this means to a level that is at, or below, that which is experienced in the client's everyday life. You must also be able to demonstrate your risk management process to a court of law, to avoid being exposed to potential claims of criminal negligence. This applies regardless of your context or intention.

Managing metaphysical risks is much more complicated. Perhaps another blog topic! However, in my 20-plus years of professional practice, I have formally assessed risk for hundreds of programmes and courses. Without a doubt, the most prolific, serious, intractable and frequent risks of working outdoors are physical. So if you intend to work outdoors, please bear this in mind!

Toward new forms

Most psychotherapists who want to work outdoors have not trained formally in outdoor leadership so have absolutely no idea about the complex field of outdoor risk management. In my experience, they see risk as primarily psychological - sometimes leading to physical harm to self or others as a secondary outcome.

Meanwhile, outdoor leaders ‘read’ the environment around them constantly, weighing up multiple risk dynamics and actively reducing the potential for physical harm. To them, psychological risks are secondary - something to be ‘dealt with’ during the ubiquitous debriefs2. However, at the first sight of a psychological crisis, they start to feel out of their depth - fearful of the unknown and mysterious world of psychology. Obviously, there is room here for some collaboration!

There are also the ‘super-ecotherapists’. They have both formal outdoor leadership and psychotherapy training and experience. They are quite rare and they are usually the product of more than ten years of training and assessment.

Along with the ‘supers’, there are those who have done their 10,000 hours, as the Buddhists would say. They have - by hook or by crook, qualified or not - managed to get so much practical experience that they can work safely and effectively across a broad range of ecotherapeutic scenarios. They have effectively completed an apprenticeship.

In my opinion, whether through the formal or apprenticeship approach, ecotherapy is way more than simply a combination of psychotherapy and outdoor leadership. While deeply informed by these two, it is a whole new profession in its own right.

I believe it is those who fully embrace this ‘new form’ that represent the truly innovative edge of ecotherapy. They are able to draw what is most useful from both psychotherapy and outdoor leadership - and importantly ditch what is less helpful. They can then add a vast array of new ideas and techniques from myriad other sources, to craft a whole new profession.

The embodied ecotherapist

Whether you are a psychotherapist, outdoor leader, super-ecotherapist or have earned your stripes through countless hours of doing the work, the heart of good practice is your own heart.

Your work as an ecotherapist must be based on your own experience of yourself as an ecological being - your own self as part of the rest of nature. For me, a lifetime of professional practice is only possible with one of personal practice. The work is fundamentally embodied and to practice it, the facilitator or therapist must embody it too.


Why do ecotherapists need governance? For me, it is about ethics and credibility.

As we've discovered, you don’t need qualifications or professional registration to call yourself an ecotherapist. In fact, ecotherapy currently sits almost completely off the mainstream professional map. This brings both challenges and benefits.

On the one hand, being off the map places ecotherapy outside the dominant conventional worldview, where it has the potential to be counter-cultural and transformative. Outside the constraints of convention, it brims with the possibility of radical change, at the deepest levels of self and society.

On the other hand, being positioned on the map as a conventional profession - with a governing body, standard ethical framework, training pathways and formal procedures for complaints - would make it a lot easier for funders, organisations and clients to engage with. This question of credibility is a very common issue brought up by my coaching clients.

One paradox of ecotherapy governance then, is how can credibility be established in the conventional world, while simultaneously challenging that world?

Of course, the question of ethics precedes that of credibility. Ethics transcend all cultures and worldviews and do not need to restrict radical ways of being and doing. The challenge with ethics - and the thing that makes them useful - is consensus. I feel it would be possible for ecotherapy peers to establish a consensus on ethics, without institutionalisation.

In the meantime, the bioethical mantra “first, do no harm” forms the central governing ethic of my own practice. How harm is defined is another matter! Once again though, this could be agreed upon by peers in any specific context.

The most obvious and immediate governance possibilities lie where ecotherapy overlaps with an existing profession. For example, where it can be incorporated into an outdoor programme, psychotherapy or coaching process, perhaps the existing governance systems for those professions are enough. Almost immediately there are issues with this approach though, because ecotherapy isn’t one or the other of these professions. It’s therefore likely that if there is an incident it will have to be decided which governance system it best fits into. This is not ideal and feels quite ‘leaky’ as a framework. While this is currently the most common approach to ecotherapy governance, it is clearly flawed. At some point it will get tested beyond breaking point - probably at the cost of both the client and ecotherapist, in one form or another.

My approach to date has been to take what governance is offered by overlapping conventional professions and then back everything up with a web of additional activities. These include

  1. regular personal practice;
  2. continuing professional development;
  3. regular supervision;
  4. peer-group support and moderation;
  5. being qualified, experienced, registered and insured (see below) in at least one relevant professional framework;
  6. clear contracting with your clients;

In the meantime, I imagine that various forms of specialist, institutional governance will start to emerge in different regions. I think this is inevitable and that it will eventually split the current, colourful ecotherapy community and cause a re-definition of terms.

Ultimately the governance ‘bottom line’ is the law of the land in which you work. Nothing insulates you from criminal negligence, except not being negligent. It is essential you do everything you can to minimise any potential harm and can demonstrate clearly and beyond doubt how you have gone about it. To do that you need to be able to ‘see’ the risks - whatever they are. I feel that naivety and professional arrogance are the main barriers to this and that both are exacerbated by a lack of collaboration across relevant professions and by isolation from the consensual moderation of peers.


I am not an insurance expert and I am approaching this discussion as a practitioner, not an insurance broker. Please always take professional advice.

My approach is to have public, product and professional liability insurance as an outdoor leader. This is partly because it is already my profession. But more importantly, I insure this aspect of the work, rather than the therapeutic part, because by far the greatest element of risk is from the physical aspects of working outdoors.

If I am working at a level of psychological depth at which I feel vulnerable not being insured, I would seek to co-facilitate with a registered psychotherapist who is insured. Quite apart from insurance, it would be unethical of me to intentionally practice at such depth without being registered. This is a ‘belt and braces’ approach through collaboration, which I feel best serves my clients.


Before we get to supervision, I feel it is really important for ecotherapists to have experienced traditional psychotherapy themselves. This is to ensure effective management of therapeutic boundaries and to avoid getting caught up in unhelpful projections, projective identification, transferences and counter-transferences - amongst many other things. If you are or want to be an ecotherapist and you aren’t familiar with any of these concepts, then perhaps this is a clue that you need to experience psychotherapy for yourself!

For me as an outdoor leader, supervision is mainly about the psychological aspects of the work. This is where I feel I need the most support to operate effectively and ethically. For psychotherapists, psychological supervision is a given but they may also want support for the outdoor - or other aspects - of their ecotherapy practice.

I believe the key to supervision is getting enough professional support to feel safe, confident and effective in your practice. Working without adequate support is potentially dangerous for both therapist and client. It is therefore essential for self-care, ethics and efficacy.

An Ecotherapy Practice Checklist

The idea of this checklist is to help you think through some of the issues around becoming an ecotherapist. Please bear in mind - as we have seen through the preceding articles in this series - that ecotherapy can be practiced in wildly diverse ways, with many different interpretations.

This list is not intended to be exhaustive, authoritative or even correct! It is just some guiding questions that have emerged from reflecting on my own research and experience of professional practice over the years.

1. What is your purpose?

Is your practice primarily about therapeutic outcomes for the individual or do you see your work as a reciprocal process where the rest of nature must benefit too?

Do you want to practice therapy where you are working with mental health issues that are likely to have been referred? Or do you want to work in more of a personal development, coaching, well-being or supporting capacity?

2. What’s your intention?

Who do you want to work with? Why do you want to work with them? What are you hoping to offer them? What are you hoping to receive? What changes are you hoping to support in the world?

3. Where do you want to work?

What’s your context? Do you want to work indoors, in a garden, allotment, community farm, park, local woodland, by the sea, in forests or mountainous regions? Do you want to work near where people live, or somewhere remote? Or perhaps a combination of these and other places?

Do you want to work in short sessions, whole days, at regular intervals or in a residential context? Do you want to work in environments that are new and different to those that your clients might experience in their everyday lives?

4. What risks are there?

Where is there a potential for loss in your work? Could people get physically hurt, what are the psychological risks? What is the role of different cultures, ethnicities, and sexual and gender identities in your practice? What is the potential for your clients to experience some form of loss around these?

Can you see all the risks? Who can help you see them?

How can you mitigate loss? How can you take responsibility properly for your role as an ecotherapist? What responsibilities do your clients have in their work with you? Do they know what they are - are they comfortable to accept them?

What happens if something goes wrong? What’s your plan? How can you demonstrate that you met your duty of care?

5. Do you embody what you hope to offer?

What’s your own ‘Earth story’? Where, when, how and why do you feel part of the rest of nature? How does nature inspire, motivate, heal, empower and support you? How do you contribute to the well-being of nature yourself? Are these questions even relevant to you - perhaps the way you embody this work is different?

6. Have you made time for regular personal practice of your own?

Do you walk your talk? Do you practice the processes and techniques you might use with your clients on yourself? Can you empathise with your clients?

7. Are you qualified, experienced and registered in at least one profession relevant to your ecotherapy practice?

While there is no one ecotherapy professional qualification, are you qualified and experienced enough to take on the primary risks present in your work professionally and ethically?

8. Are you committed to Continuing Professional Development (CPD)?

When is your next CPD event? How often do you engage with CPD? Where can you find out about CPD opportunities? What CPD do you need?

9. Do you get regular supervision?

Do you have a supervisor to work with? Do you work with them regularly? If not, when do you work with them? When was the last time you sought supervision support?

10. Do you have a peer group to support you and moderate your practice?

Who is in your peer group? Do they have the diversity and depth of experience needed to support you properly? How do you connect with them? How often do you engage with them? Are you able to give and receive feedback openly in your peer group? Do you respect their advice and counsel?

11. Do you take care of contracting with your clients?

Do you have a written contract with your clients? Are they clear about what you are - and are not - offering? Do they understand the risks and responsibilities of working with you? Do they know about insurance and what to do if they have a concern or complaint? Are you charging them and do your clients know how much and what the terms are? Do your clients understand their boundaries of confidentiality and under what circumstances these must be breached?

12. Do you have professional, product and public liability insurance relevant to a core aspect of your ecotherapy practice?

Whether an outdoor leader, psychotherapist or other healthcare worker, educator or coach - are you insured for that bit of your conventional profession which overlaps with your ecotherapy practice? If not, what is your strategy for providing you and your clients with adequate insurance coverage?


  1. Of course it's not that simple! []
  2. I prefer the word ‘review’ as debrief harks back to the military age of outdoor leadership. []


  1. Isabella Fisk1st March 2024

    Thank you David, this has been such a helpful article and come at exactly the right time for me, as i have just decided that a clinical psychology doctorate may not be my preferred path to take. I am 25 and have been pursuing education in psychology and forensic psychology over the last few years, and now work as an assistant psychologist and sustainability facilitator at an adults autism service. I have been passionate about nature for as long as i can remember, and the discovery of ecotherapy as a possible option is amazing, as this would hopefully bring together my training and education so far, as well as my passion for protecting the planet. I have lots of questions – would you be open to email correspondence or possible a telephone conversation to discuss this more? Thank you so much 🙂

    1. David Key2nd March 2024

      Hi Isabella,

      Thank you for your comment and I am very glad you found the article helpful. I have emailed you directly about an appointment for a chat.

  2. Lou14th December 2023

    Hi David, thank you so much for your informative post! I’m an outdoor educator in NZ looking at upskilling to move into eco-therapy, however am confused between what study path would best fit for this style of work; social work, psychotherapy, or psychologist? I would really appreciate your insight, thank you!

    1. David Key14th December 2023

      Hi Lou, thanks for your comment. I emailed you directly in response.

  3. Maura12th June 2021

    Excellent work which needs to be embraced by all professional disciplines. Thank you for ecotherapy!

    1. David Key14th June 2021

      Thanks for your comment Maura. Please do get in touch if you fancy a chat sometime …

  4. Nora27th May 2021

    Dear David,

    Thank you for your insight I have benefitted greatly from reading your articles. I’ve been practicing landscape architecture for the past 15 years but have become increasingly unsatisfied with the profession, so I’ve decided to shift. With an understanding of nature and natural systems as well as a keen interest in Mental health issues I would like to explore ecotherapy further. My main interest would be to combine all three fields to design and map personalised mental health routes for ecotherapists to use, with the intention to facilitate the process of preparing for coaching sessions. My first line of action is to get a further understanding of ecotherapy and have thus registered for a course. Any advice from your end would be greatly received. Much appreciation!

  5. Kelly Green27th December 2020

    David, I am delighted to have found your writings and teachings on this subject. I am in a deep and focused process of remaking my work life to fully align with my values for healthy people on a thriving planet. I have a rather extensive and varied background as an outdoor enthusiast raising environmental awareness, an occupational therapist, a mystic student and priest, a mother, a green team leader, a homesteader, and most recently a board certified health and wellness coach. Climate change and the implications it has for present and future generations and all life forms is what keeps me up at night. Our collective disconnect from the ‘natural world’ that is our very reason for existence is at the root of it. As I remake myself professionally, I have struggled to know what to call myself. Slowandsimpleliving and kellyGREENcoaching capture some of it. The reciprocal nature you describe as the differentiator of an eco-therapist really fits and speaks to the piece I have been trying to convey to those who will want to work with me. I am heartened to know that I do not need to add yet another certification to my name to call myself this. It really describes who I am and the work I feel called to do on this broken and beautiful planet. Thank you for taking the time to write all this out with such thought, clarity and care. I am most appreciative. I look forward to reading your next two posts!

    1. David Key27th December 2020

      Hi Kelly, thanks very much for your comment. I’m really glad you’ve found the articles useful! I struggle to name my work too – and I wrote the articles!!

      Are you on my mailing list? If not, you might like to join for future articles and information – scroll down for the sign-up button! Also, if you want any support with your re-creation process do let me know – I might be able to help, perhaps through my coaching programme?

  6. Angela Entzel16th June 2020

    Wonderful resource! Thank you!

    1. David Key16th June 2020

      Hi Angel – thanks! Glad is was helpful. Did you read the follow-on articles too – or just the first in the series?

  7. Sandra Cunningham2nd February 2019

    Really enjoying your article series about how to get into Ecotherapy, David. Much of it resonates with me operating in an outdoor/nature-based coaching context. I perceive that most ‘coaches’ that I have come into contact with, and who work in the outdoors, use the natural environment rather more as a tool – as I did when I took my first steps into this field. Few consider a relational or systemic viewpoint. Even fewer have outdoor leader qualifications, let alone an outdoor first aid cert. I really appreciate you highlighting this. Not because I want to be seen as ‘better’ (although my ego would love it) but more because of the responsibility we have that (I believe) many underestimate.

    1. David Key4th February 2019

      Hi Sandra,

      Thanks for your comment.

      I think your typology is spot on. In almost every example, ecotherapy practice can be broadly split into the two camps you describe. Nature as resource vs nature as home. The latter I think of as the ‘reciprocal approach’, the former as the ‘consumer approach’.Gosh, there’s so much to say about that – might need another blog!

      I totally agree that many people leading others outdoors in a professional therapeutic context underestimate their responsibilities. There is also the less technical, much more subtle side of the process which gets missed. I believe that leading others outdoors is an art-form, done well. Something magic about it, mysterious. It requires considerable experience, skill and creativity. To then make the experience therapeutic is a further quantum leap!

      That sounds good for our ego’s!

  8. Kate Hazlewood31st January 2019

    David I love to hear about your work and feel it must increasingly feature as important in dealing with broken psyches. In GP surgeries here in the U.K. resources are being used to deal with depression and the like by introducing the patient to dance classes art classes walking clubs rather than the prescription of drugs! I personally would love to be able to hike through mountain ranges but have to stick with tai chi. I see you are back in NZ. Kindest regards. Kate (and Barrie) Hazlewood

    1. David Key31st January 2019

      Lovely to hear from you Kate. Hope you and Barry are well and enjoying life. Thanks for your comment.

      Yes, there are lots of new directions opening up for helping folks psychologically. It’s been a slow process. I wrote my first funding application for an Ecotherapy-by-prescription programme 15 years ago! It didn’t even get a look-in then. But the wave is breaking now!

      Back in NZ and loving it: a homecoming.

  9. Rory MacPhee10th January 2019

    Thank you David, fascinating. I was in Australia recently studying Forest Therapy, AKA Shinrin Yoku and other monikers. The word Therapy is problematic, especially in safeguarding terms. When is the next article due? You may recall you kindly delivered a key note address at a climate conference I established in Falmouth a decade ago. Hope NZ treating you good. R

    1. David Key11th January 2019

      Hi Rory, thanks for your comment.

      I do indeed recall! Very kind of you to invite me!

      New Zealand is treating us beautifully thanks, deepening further in each day…


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